Here we talk about what is Network Topology and how many type of Network Topology. You might have heard about its many type but in this blog post you will know What are 5 common network topologies? Network Topology is the schematic description of the physical and logical elements of a communication network or the pattern of interconnection of nodes in a network is called the Topology or the Network Topology.
Many topologies have been developed, but major ones are:
- The Star topology
- The Bus topology
- The Ring or Circular topology
- The Mesh topology
- The Tree topology
The Star Topology
This topology consists of a central node (concentrator) to which all other nodes are connected by a single path. It is the topology used in most existing information networks involving data processing or voice communications. A variation of star topology is the Tree topology.
Advantages of Star Topology
- It is easy to install and wire.
- No disruption to the networks take place while connecting or removing devices.
- It is easy to detect faults and to remove parts.
Disadvantages of Star Topology
- It requires more cable length than a linear topology.
- If the hub, switch, or concentrator fails, nodes attached are disabled.
- It is more expensive than linear bus topologies because of the cost of the hubs, etc.
The Bus or Linear Topology
This topology consists of a single length of the transmission medium (normally coaxial cable) onto which the various nodes are attached. The transmission from any station travels the length of the bus, in both directions, and can be received by all other stations. At each end, there are terminators which remove the travelling data token from the network.
Advantages of Bus Topology
- It is easy to connect a computer or peripheral to a linear bus.
- It requires less cable length than a star topology.
Disadvantages of Bus Topology
- Entire network shuts down if there is a break in the main cable.
- Terminators are required at both ends of the backbone cable.
- It is more difficult to identify the problem if the entire network shuts down.
- It is not meant to be used as a stand-alone topology in a large building.
The Ring or Circular Topology
In this topology, each node is connected to two and only two neighbouring nodes. Data is accepted from one of the neighbouring nodes and is transmitted onwards to another. Thus data token travels in one direction only, from node to node around the ring. After passing through each node, it returns to the sending node, which removes it.
Advantages of Ring Topology
- Transmitting network is not affected by high traffic or by adding more nodes, as only the nodes having tokens can transmit data.
- It is comparatively cheaper to install and expand.
Disadvantages of Ring Topology
- Troubleshooting is difficult in ring topology.
- Adding or deleting the computers disturb the network activity.
- Failure of one computer disturbs the whole network.
In this topology, each node is connected to more than one node to provide an alternative route in the case the host is either down or too busy. The mesh topology is excellent for long distance networking because it provides extensive back-up, rerouting and pass-through capabilities. Communications is possible between any two nodes on the network either directly or by passing through. This is also ideal for distributed networks.
Advantages of Mesh Topology
- Each connection can carry its own data load.
- It is robust and provides security and privacy.
- In this topology, fault diagnosis is easy.
Disadvantages of Mesh Topology
- Its installation and configuration is difficult.
- Cabling cost is more for mesh topology.
- Bulk writing is required for mesh topology.
Tree or Expanded Star Topology
A tree topology combines characteristics of linear bus and star topologies. It consists of groups of star-configured workstations connected to a linear bus backbone cable.
Advantages of Tree Topology
- It uses point-to-point writing for individual segments.
- It is supported by several hardware and software venders.
Disadvantages of Tree Topology
- Overall length of each segment is limited by the type of cabling used.
- If the backbone line breaks, the entire segment goes down.
- It is more difficult to configure and wire than other topologies.
The layout of a network has a direct impact on network functionality. By selecting the right topology can improve performance, data efficiency, and reduce operational costs. One of the primary uses of network topology is to define the configuration of various telecommunication networks, including computer networks, command and control radio networks, etc.